Capparis macrantha Souvannakhoummane, Fici & Lanorsavanh sp. nov., a new shrub species characterized by erect or ascending habit, stipular thorns, large lanceolate-elliptic leaves and large flowers in supra-axillary rows, is described and illustrated from the deciduous forest in Nam Kading National Protected Area (central Lao PDR). The new species belongs to Capparis sect. Monostichocalyx Radlk. and is morphologically similar to C. radula Gagnep., a shrub widespread in the Indochinese area, differing in the shorter, straight stipular thorns, larger leaves, larger sepals and petals, higher number of stamens with longer filaments and longer gynophore and ovary. Its affinities with related taxa are discussed and a key is provided for the species of Capparis L. known from Lao PDR. The conservation status of the new species is provisionally assessed as Vulnerable (VU D1).